A second way to simulate the drive for progress is to create an environment that encourages people to experiment and learn—to try a lot of stuff and keep what works. 3M began life as a failed mine and could not pay its first president a salary for 11 years. Yet it grew into one of the most innovative companies in history, eventually branching into more than 60,000 new products. In contrast, Norton (3Ms comparison in our study) began life with a revolutionary new grinding wheel that propelled the company to spectacular early growth. Yet Norton became a stodgy old-line company, with no reputation for sustained innovation. 3Ms clock builders created an environment where people were encouraged to try just about anything, and were given 15% of their time to do so. Our company has, indeed, stumbled onto some of its new products," an early CEO once noted. "But never forget that you can stumble only if you're moving." Norton, on the other hand, stifled experimentation and discouraged people from working on anything but grinding wheels. "You could work on anything you wanted as long as it was round and had a hole in it," recalled one Norton research scientist.