Elseworth Huntington—the American geographer—who wrote the monumental book, The Principles of Human Geography in 1945, was a protagonist of environmental determinism. Huntington’s writings on climate and civilization displayed his predilection for racial typecasting and environmentalist explanations. He, however, constantly reiterated the importance of genetic constitution and threw his weight behind various genetic enterprises (Spate, 1968). He took the most decisive step since the time of Hippocrates towards something new and conclusive in environmental causation thinking. Over many years he was engaged in developing the idea of climate’s leading role in the advancement of civilization. He advanced theories relating to course of civilization to climatic change.
Many mathematical models of physical systems are deterministic. This is true of most models involving differential equations (notably, those measuring rate of change over time). Mathematical models that are not deterministic because they involve randomness are called stochastic . Because of sensitive dependence on initial conditions , some deterministic models may appear to behave non-deterministically; in such cases, a deterministic interpretation of the model may not be useful due to numerical instability and a finite amount of precision in measurement. Such considerations can motivate the consideration of a stochastic model even though the underlying system is governed by deterministic equations.