A report called Smokeless Tobacco and Public Health: A Global Perspective was released by the CDC and the National Cancer Institute in December 2014. According to this report, more than 300 million people in at least 70 countries use harmful smokeless tobacco products . Cigar smokers and smokeless tobacco (chew or spit tobacco) users have similar health risks as cigarette smokers, including oral cancer, esophageal cancer, and pancreatic cancer, as well as oral health problems like mucosal lesions, leukoplakia, and periodontal disease. Smokeless tobacco products also contain nicotine, and users often demonstrate signs of dependence similar to those of cigarette smokers.
In Cannabis and driving: a review of the literature and commentary , the United Kingdom's Department for Transport reviewed data on cannabis and driving, finding "Cannabis impairs driving behaviour. However, this impairment is mediated in that subjects under cannabis treatment appear to perceive that they are indeed impaired. Where they can compensate, they do, for example ... effects of driving behaviour are present up to an hour after smoking but do not continue for extended periods".  The report summarizes current knowledge about the effects of cannabis on driving and accident risk based on a review of available literature published since 1994 and the effects of cannabis on laboratory based tasks. The study identified young males, amongst whom cannabis consumption is frequent and increasing, and in whom alcohol consumption is also common, as a risk group for traffic accidents. The cause, according to the report, is driving inexperience and factors associated with youth relating to risk taking, delinquency and motivation. These demographic and psychosocial variables may relate to both drug use and accident risk, thereby presenting an artificial relationship between use of drugs and accident involvement.